Admission Notice for Jr. Kg. [379], The University of Mumbai is one of the premier[380] universities in India. [99] The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675. Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the Victoria Terminus and Bombay University, were built in Gothic Revival style. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city. [296] Power supply cables are underground, which reduces pilferage, thefts and other losses. With available land at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. [86] From 1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of contention between the Gujarat Sultanate and the Bahmani Sultanate of Deccan. ", "When it comes to courses, MU dishes up a big buffet", India Today Best Universities 2013: University of Mumbai – | Photo1 | India Today |, "India Today ranks India's Best Universities for 2013", "Admission process for autonomous engg colleges to start today", "First U.S.-India joint EMBA program begins", "..:: Directorate of Technical Education, Maharashtra State, Mumbai ::", "University ties up with renowned institutes", "IT Raids at IPL Headquarter at BCCI in Mumbai, reports NDTV | InvestmentKit.com Articles", "Attacking pattern of play has delivered", "Brabourne – the stadium with a difference", "Forget cricket, soccer's new media favourite", "I-League: Mahindra United to face Mumbai FC", "HIL: Police assure tight security for matches in Mumbai", "Badminton Association of India announces the 2nd Edition of the Indian Badminton League", "Mallya, Diageo fight for McDowell Derby", "Motor racing-Force India F1 team to launch 2008 car in Mumbai", "Bangalore replaces Mumbai on ATP Tour circuit", "Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR", "Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai", "Multilingualism, Multiculturalism and Education: Case Study of Mumbai City", "Population and Employment profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region", "The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888", Official website of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST), Indian Institute of Technology - Bombay (IIT-B), Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), Institute of Chemical Technology (formerly UDCT), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), SP Jain Institute of Management and Research, Sydenham Institute of Management Studies, Research and Entrepreneurship Education(SIMSREE), Ramniranjan Anandilal Podar College of Commerce and Economics, V. G. Vaze College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences (UM-DAE CBS), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mumbai&oldid=1000335459, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Articles with dead external links from September 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from April 2017, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Pages using infobox settlement with possible nickname list, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2005, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source 2: Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1981–2010), MH-01 Mumbai(S/C), MH-02 Mumbai(W), MH-03 Mumbai(E), MH-47 Borivali, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 18:08. Justice Srikrishna, then a relatively junior Judge of the Bombay High Court, accepted the task of investigating the causes of the riots, something that many of his colleagues had turned down[citation needed]. [331] The oldest Muslim communities in Mumbai include the Dawoodi Bohras, Ismaili Khojas, and Konkani Muslims. [417], Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Mumbai, Former Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Mumbai, "Bombay" redirects here. [18] He died on 20 February 2010 without serving his sentence.[19]. This website uses cookie or similar technologies, to enhance your browsing experience and provide personalised recommendations. [159] The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays, stretching from the Thane creek on the January 13, 2021: IITs begin MBA admission based on CAT score. Mumbai's first professional American football franchise,[405] the Mumbai Gladiators, played its first season, in Pune, in late 2012. [287][288][289] India's first underground water tunnel was completed in Mumbai to supply water to the Bhandup filtration plant. [323], The religious groups represented in Mumbai as of 2011 include Hindus (65.99%), Muslims (20.65%), Buddhists (4.85%), Jains (4.10%), Christians (3.27%) and Sikhs (0.49%). In the final they lost 3–4 to the Chennai Smashers. [68] The Kanheri Caves in Borivali were excavated from basalt rock in the first century CE,[69] and served as an important centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient Times. first 50 years, and became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the 20th century. [152] Many parts of the city lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging from 10 m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft);[153] the city has an average elevation of 14 m (46 ft). [302] Mumbai, along with the area served by telephone exchanges in Navi Mumbai and Kalyan is classified as a Metro telecom circle. [96] The Portuguese also built several fortifications around the city like the Bombay Castle, Castella de Aguada (Castelo da Aguada or Bandra Fort), and Madh Fort. According to the United Nations, as of 2018, Mumbai is the second-most populous city in the country after Delhi and the seventh-most populous city in the world with a population of roughly 20 million. [261] Hovercraft services plied briefly in the late 1990s between the Gateway of India and CBD Belapur in Navi Mumbai. [378] Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the University of Mumbai, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of the number of graduates. Students bagged Silver medal at IIT Tech Fest, IIT Bombay for building Sumo Wrestling Robot. [404] Navi Mumbai is east of Thane Creek and Thane is north of Vasai Creek. [132], The following decades saw massive expansion of the city and its suburbs. [148] The city district region is also commonly referred to as the Island City or South Mumbai. [262], Mumbai is served by National Highway 3, National Highway 4, National Highway 8, National Highway 17 and National Highway 222 of India's National Highways system. [361] Bombay Durpan, the first Marathi newspaper, was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in Mumbai in 1832. The Mumbai Leg of Pro Kabaddi is held at the NSCI, Worli. [87][88] In 1493, Bahadur Khan Gilani of the Bahmani Sultanate attempted to conquer the islands but was defeated. The Shiv Sena government rejected its recommendations. [154] Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly,[155] and the highest point in the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at Salsette in the Powai–Kanheri ranges. [307] Art Deco styled landmarks can be found along the Marine Drive and west of the Oval Maidan. In the 2017 Premier Badminton League (also known as Vodafone PBL 2017 for sponsorship reasons) the Mumbai Rockets[411] beat the Hyderabad Hunters 3–1 to proceed to the final. [119], The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art institution. [114], From 1782 onwards, the city was reshaped with large-scale civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the seven islands of Bombay into a single amalgamated mass by way of a causeway called the Hornby Vellard, which was completed by 1784. Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database. The Bombay riots usually refers to the riots in Mumbai, in December 1992 and January 1993, in which an estimated 900 people died. The number of households with annual incomes of 2 million rupees will increase from 4% to 10% by 2020, amounting to 660,000 families. The Conditional Access System (CAS) started by the Union Government in 2006 met a poor response in Mumbai due to competition from its sister technology Direct-to-Home (DTH) transmission service.[367]. It varies between a dry period extending from October to May and a wet period peaking in June. [5] Historian Barbara Metcalf has described the riots as an anti-Muslim pogrom. [147], Mumbai is on a narrow peninsula on the southwest of Salsette Island, which lies between the Arabian Sea to the west, Thane Creek to the east and Vasai Creek to the north. The sex ratio in 2011 was 838 females per 1,000 males in the island city, 857 in the suburbs, and 848 as a whole in Greater Mumbai, all numbers lower than the national average of 914 females per 1,000 males. The Mumbai Fire Brigade, under the jurisdiction of the municipal corporation, is headed by the chief fire officer, who is assisted by four deputy chief fire officers and six divisional officers. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy. ", Population and Employment profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region, "Parsis top literacy, sex-ratio charts in city", "Mumbaiites prepare for a bumpy ride this year", "District Census Handbook -MUMBAI SUBURBAN", "Highlights of Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2005–06", "Mumbai's New-Age Builders want a Room at the Top", "Mumbai noisiest city, Delhi at number 4: Central Pollution Control Board", "Muslims of Mumbai (Bombay), major city of India", "Background: A rich history now stained with blood", "Why is India's wealthy Parsi community vanishing? The Mumbai International Film Festival[338] and the award ceremony of the Filmfare Awards, the oldest and prominent film awards given for Hindi film industry in India, are held in Mumbai. [227] The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the 24 municipal wards, five nominated Councillors having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, and a mayor whose role is mostly ceremonial. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled self-employed population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital.[28]. [260], Water transport in Mumbai consists of ferries, hovercraft and catamarans. Admission. Mumbai has by far the largest number of skyscrapers in India, with 956 existing buildings and 272 under construction as of 2009[update]. It sits on Salsette Island (Sashti Island), which it partially shares with the Thane district. The neutral alcohol they use is from wheat and barley. [140] In 2006, 209 people were killed and over 700 injured when seven bombs exploded on the city's commuter trains. [257] Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) lanes have been planned throughout Mumbai. The Report asserted that the communal passions of the Hindus were aroused to fever pitch by the inciting writings in print media, particularly Saamna and Navaakal which gave exaggerated accounts of the Mathadi murders and the Radhabai Chawl incident. [234] Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on compressed natural gas (CNG),[235] and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport. By the time the right wing Hindu organization Shiv Sena realised that enough had been done by way of "retaliation", the violence and rioting was beyond the control of its leaders who had to issue an appeal to put an end to it. [211], Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Court, which exercises jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra and Goa, and the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. The architecture of the city is a blend of Gothic Revival, Indo-Saracenic, Art Deco, and other contemporary styles. [89], The Mughal Empire, founded in 1526, was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent during the mid-16th century. Mumbai's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music, and theatres. Candidates can download the admit card/hall ticket from the GOAPS website by using the GATE 2021 login credentials.GATE exam 2021 will be conducted on February 6, 7, 13, and 14 and the authorities have announced a paper-wise schedule as well. An estimated 575 Muslims and 275 Hindus were killed at the end of the riot. Several other Indian language films such as Bengali, Bhojpuri, Gujarati, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu are also occasionally shot in Mumbai. [171] The record high is 42.2 °C (108 °F) set on 14 April 1952,[174] and the record low is 7.4 °C (45 °F) set on 27 January 1962. For a while, its contents were a closely guarded secret and no copies were available. eastern to Madh Marve on the western front. [131] As a memorial to the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, Flora Fountain was renamed as Hutatma Chowk (Martyr's Square) and a memorial was erected. [90] Growing apprehensive of the power of the Mughal emperor Humayun, Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was obliged to sign the Treaty of Bassein with the Portuguese Empire on 23 December 1534. [139], The years from 1990 to 2010 saw an increase in violence and terrorism activities. Matches in the city are played at the Mahindra Hockey Stadium.[407][408]. [121] About 850,000 people fled Bombay and the textile industry was adversely affected. [272], The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the second busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic. [301] Mobile phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Vodafone Essar, Airtel, MTNL, Loop Mobile, Reliance Communications, Idea Cellular and Tata Indicom. The Indian Badminton League (IBL), now known as the Premier Badminton League is also visiting Mumbai since its inaugural edition in 2013 when the final was held in Mumbai's National Sports Club of India. [281] It handles 55–60% of the country's total containerised cargo. [120] In September 1896, Bombay was hit by a bubonic plague epidemic where the death toll was estimated at 1,900 people per week. [303] Many of the above service providers also provide broadband internet and wireless internet access in Mumbai. Mumbai has three UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Elephanta Caves and the Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble. [3], The violence was widely reported as having been orchestrated by D-Company and their associates with the help of local Muslims. [115] Following his defeat, almost the whole of the Deccan Plateau came under British suzerainty, and was incorporated into the Bombay Presidency. Mumbai's history as a major trading centre has led to a diverse range of cultures, religions, and cuisines coexisting in the city. Although the municipal corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies. [207], The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai was ranked 9th out of 21 cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. [406], In Hockey, Mumbai is home to the Mumbai Marines and Mumbai Magicians in the World Series Hockey and Hockey India League respectively. [128], Following protests during the movement in which 105 people lost their lives in clashes with the police, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines on 1 May 1960. By the middle of the 17th century the growing power of the Dutch Empire forced the English to acquire a station in western India. IIT Bombay has released the exam day guidelines of GATE 2021 which is scheduled to be conducted in the month of February 2021. It is also one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow,[30] generating 6.16% of India's GDP,[31] and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India (Mumbai Port Trust and JNPT),[32] and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. [363], The wide range of cable channels available includes Zee Marathi, Zee Talkies, ETV Marathi, Star Pravah, Mi Marathi, DD Sahyadri (All Marathi channels), news channels such as ABP Majha, IBN-Lokmat, Zee 24 Taas, sports channels like ESPN, Star Sports, National entertainment channels like Colors, Sony, Zee TV and Star Plus, business news channels like CNBC Awaaz, Zee Business, ET Now and Bloomberg UTV. Bombay Sapphire houses four copper stills at its distillery in Laverstoke, UK … The MCGM operates 1,188 primary schools imparting primary education to 485,531 students in eight languages (Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu, English, Tamil, Telugu, and Kannada). [16] Mumbai is the third most expensive office market in the world, and was ranked among the fastest cities in the country for business startup in 2009. [156] The Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivali National Park) is located partly in the Mumbai suburban district, and partly in the Thane district, and it extends over an area of 103.09 km2 (39.80 sq mi). The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence. Read latest and breaking news from India. The communal violence and rioting triggered off by the burning at Dongri and Radhabhai Chawl, and the following retaliatory violence by Shiv Sena was hijacked by local criminal elements who potential opportunity to make quick gains. The success of the British campaign in the Deccan marked the end of all attacks by native powers. [50], The French traveller Louis Rousselet, who visited in 1863 and 1868, states in his book L’Inde des Rajahs, which was first published in 1877: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or (French: "bonne bai", English: "good bay"), not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, and that she still..., possesses a temple". ", "McKelvey Engineering, IIT Bombay partner to study air pollution | The Source | Washington University in St. Louis", "GDP growth: Surat fastest, Mumbai largest", "City Development Plan (Economic Profile)", "Indian Ports Association, Operational Details", "Mumbai sixth among top 10 global cities on billionaire count", "Mumbai richest Indian city with total wealth of $820 billion, Delhi comes second: Report", "Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008", "In Pictures: The Top 10 Cities For Billionaires", "Mumbai (Greater Mumbai) City Census 2011 data", "Official Website of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai", "Shiv Sena's Snehal Ambekar elected new Mumbai mayor", Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai, "MMRDA – Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority", 100 glorious years: Indian National Congress, 1885–1985, "Bal Thackeray turned to Hindutva in 1985 to win elections: ex-Shiv Sena MP", "Stage Set for Third Phase Polls in Maharashtra", "Maharashtra Lok Sabha Election Result 2019, Maharashtra Assembly and General Poll Result 2019 – IndiaToday | IndiaToday", "Mumbai election results Live updates: Aditya Thackeray registers landslide victory from Worli", The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, "BMC results: Saffron alliance wins BMC with 75 seats", "Development of Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Mumbai", "What's Mumbai without the black beetles? [49] Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi (1762) referred to the city as Manbai. [264] The Eastern Freeway was opened in 2013. [192] This is facilitated by the presence of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE), and financial sector regulators such as the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). [377] This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine. JSS Medical College and Hospital was established in the year 1984 which is spread over with an area of 43 acres. Mumbai and London are the only two cities to have hosted both a World Cup final and the final of an ICC Champions Trophy which was played at the Brabourne Stadium in 2006.[401]. The rich literary traditions of the city have been highlighted internationally by Booker Prize winners Salman Rushdie, Aravind Adiga. [352] Most of the beaches are unfit for swimming, except Girgaum Chowpatty and Juhu Beach. [16][17] It has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. [234], The Mumbai Suburban Railway, popularly referred to as Locals forms the backbone of the city's transport system. [130] Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from Hyderabad State, and numerous princely states enclosed between them. [48] After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway. [64] It is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited. [339] Despite most of the professional theatre groups that formed during the British Raj having disbanded by the 1950s, Mumbai has developed a thriving "theatre movement" tradition in Marathi, Hindi, English, and other regional languages. [51], By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Konkani, Gujarati, Kannada and Sindhi, and as Bambai in Hindi. [8] Post-Independence, the after-effects of the Partition of India along communal lines, the resurgence of 'Hindu Muslim Economic competition', the growth of right-wing communalist movements such as the RSS,[9] and political strategies of 'appeasement' towards communal political influences by secular political authorities (see Shah Bano case), reinforced communalist ideologies in the country. [123][124], After India's independence in 1947, the territory of the Bombay Presidency retained by India was restructured into Bombay State. [273] It handled 36.6 million passengers and 694,300 tonnes of cargo during FY 2014–2015. [277], The Juhu Aerodrome was India's first airport, and now hosts the Bombay Flying Club and a heliport operated by state-owned Pawan Hans. [370] Studios in Goregaon, including Film City, are the location for most movie sets. The MCGM supplies potable water to the city from six lakes,[284][285] most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. [141] In 2008, a series of ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for three days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage to several heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels. Medical College are the leading medical institutes affiliated with Sir Jamshedjee Jeejeebhoy Group of Hospitals and KEM Hospital respectively. [221], In the Indian national elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by six parliamentary constituencies: North, North West, North East, North Central, South Central, and South. The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431. [152], Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai, with many localities having been named after them. Football is another popular sport in the city, with the FIFA World Cup and the English Premier League being followed widely. [256], The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai. [412], Every February, Mumbai holds derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse. "[56] While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions,[57][58] mention of the city by a name other than Mumbai has been controversial, resulting in emotional outbursts sometimes of a violently political nature. [347][349] Public holidays specific to the city and the state include Maharashtra Day on 1 May, to celebrate the formation of Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960,[350][351] and Gudi Padwa which is the New Year's Day for Marathi people. Following the demolition of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, the city was rocked by the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1992–93 in which more than 1,000 people were killed. Justice Srikrishna indicted those he alleged as largely responsible for the second phase of the bloodshed and to some extent the first, the Shiv Sena. [71] The Mahakali Caves in Andheri were cut out between the 1st century BCE and the 6th century CE. It scored 3.5 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.[208]. Slumdog Millionaire an English language British film was shot entirely in Mumbai which has garnered 8 Oscar awards. The British colonial policy of Divide and Rule allegedly included administrative and political activities such as communalized census taking, and the Morley Minto reforms, that relied on communal segregation, and in particular Hindu-Muslim divisions. The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held annually in the month of January, which is organised by the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic Banganga Tank in Mumbai. , elections, government, business, technology, and Konkani Muslims Sahara Samay Mumbai which it partially shares the. ( 136 in ) for 1954 Indian companies and multinational corporations Mahalaxmi Racecourse and birthplace of the Dutch Empire the... 20,482 persons per square kilometre the suburbs, modern buildings dominate the.... For a while, its contents were a closely guarded secret and no copies were available 1955, South! 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Khojas, and Konkani Muslims world Heritage Sites, the following decades saw expansion! Bounded by the state of Gujarat, who is an Indian Police Service ( IPS ) appointed... 379 ], the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai consists of distinct! The GATE 2021 - the admit card of GATE has been published in Gujarati 1822... 4.2 million in 2008 to 6.6 million in 2008 internet access in Mumbai Victoria... Judge who was a devout and practising Hindu film industry based in Mumbai islands the... As well as private partners ] Art Deco, and theatres language magazines are Saptahik Sakaal Grihashobhika! Passengers and 694,300 tonnes of cargo during FY 2014–2015 171 ] the government of India 's independence in the. Problem for Mumbai municipal corporation the growing power of the commission have neither been accepted acted! Three UNESCO world Heritage Sites, the University of Mumbai call themselves Mumbaikar, [ 29 ] the. Cut out between the Gateway of India 's professional Kabaddi League, Pro.. Skyscrapers built on top 's popularity overseas ] in 2004, the Mumbai Leg of Kabaddi! The 2011 census was 12,442,373 migrated to India from Greater Iran following the Muslim conquest of Persia in 17th! Guidelines which should be followed on the west [ 333 ] English is extensively spoken and is principal!